A cleanroom is a controlled environment where products are manufactured. It is a room in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits. Eliminating sub-micron airborne contamination is really a process of control. These contaminants are generated by people, process, facilities and equipment. They must be continually removed from the air.
A clean room has a controlled level of contamination that is specified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a specified particle size. To give perspective, the ambient air outside in a typical urban environment contains 35,000,000 particles per cubic meter in the size range 0.5 μm and larger in diameter, corresponding to an ISO 9 clean room, while an ISO 1 clean room allows no particles in that size range and only 12 particles per cubic meter of 0.3 μm and smaller.
Clean room are planned and manufactured using strict protocol and methods. They are frequently found in electronics, pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, medical device industries and other critical manufacturing environments.